Essentially, there are 2 types of cloning…
Biological cloning leading to clones such as identical twins who share exactly the same DNA.
Or artificial, genetically engineered cloning leading to such clones as plants whose DNA is also identical.
But there exists a more precise kind of cloning in physics that reaches all the way to the subatomic level of particles. Everything in the universe is made up of elementary quantum particles and the forces by which they interact, including DNA and us. This kind of cloning is more detailed because it involves the superposition of subatomic particles; their relative positions (particles can be in more than 1 position or state at the time), momenta and energy levels of every particle and all of their bonds and interactions are exactly the same in the copy (clone) as the original.
This kind of perfect cloning is impossible. It has been proven mathematically and formulated into the no cloning theorem, which states:
“In physics, the no-cloning theorem states that it is impossible to create an identical copy of an arbitrary unknown quantum state.”
How those two types of cloning apply to life systems, such as us, our DNA and so forth?
As the example of identical twins or genetically cloned plants or animals indicate, biological clones are identical as far as their DNA, but they are not identical on subatomic level, where their quantum correlations, relative positions, momenta and energy levels their bonds and interactions are NOT exactly the same in the copy (clone) as in the original.This means that each time the cell divides, making the exact copy of itself, including DNA, the new copy could be identical biologically (it doesn’t have to be) but it is definitely not identical on subatomic level due to no cloning theorem, that prohibits such identical cloning.
So, what does it all mean?
There are many implications due to these very facts but I would like to focus on one in this OP – evolution.
The Darwinian theory of evolution relies on the premise that for evolutionary processes to accomplish their “goals” of building new structures, organs and life forms, the information in the life system undergoing evolution has to continue to increase. However, due to the no cloning theorem, even an identical copy of the a cell and it’s DNA can’t be made, not to mention a copy of a cell or DNA with an increased quantum information. So, how could evolution progress then if the quantum information cannot increase?
How about mutations?
Darwinists claim that mutations, the errors in the biological processes of the cell attempting to make an identical copy of itself, including DNA, lead to some genetic variation, which lead to an increase of information.
Actually, it’s the opposite.
Scientists have put this idea to the experimental test. It was discovered that it’s possible to “clone” a qubit of information with an average of 83% fidelity. This means that on average 17% of quantum information was lost each time a qubit of information was “cloned”…
I just don’t know where the additional information would come from for Darwinism to be even close to its abilities to increase information, if each time a qubit of information is “cloned”, such as in DNA, there occurs a loss of information and not an increase…
The only evidence I see in all this is proof for devolution and not evolution, just as Behe observed it, and wrote about it in his new book Darwin Devolves.
It follows that the loss of quantum information with each cell and DNA replication is gradually leading to more mutations and more damaging ones, especially if they are artificially selected for, just like in dog breeding in the devolution of wolf to chihuahua…